Adjunct Targeted Biologic Inhibition Agents to Treat Aggressive Multivessel Intraluminal Pediatric Pulmonary Vein Stenosis

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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the use of imatinib mesylate with or without bevacizumab targeting neoproliferative myofibroblast-like cells with tyrosine kinase receptor expression, as adjuncts to modern interventional therapies for the treatment of multivessel intraluminal pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS). We describe the 48- and 72-week outcomes among patients receiving imatinib mesylate with or without bevacizumab for multivessel intraluminal PVS.

Study design

This single-arm, prospective, open-label US Food and Drug Administration approved trial enrolled patients with ≥2 affected pulmonary veins after surgical or catheter-based relief of obstruction between March 2009 and December 2014. Drug therapy was discontinued at 48 weeks, or after 24 weeks of stabilization, whichever occurred later.

Results

Among 48 enrolled patients, 5 had isolated PVS, 26 congenital heart disease, 5 lung disease, and 12 both. After the 72-week follow-up, 16 patients had stabilized, 27 had recurred locally without stabilization, and 5 had progressed. Stabilization was associated with the absence of lung disease (P = .03), a higher percentage of eligible drug doses received (P = .03), and was not associated with age, diagnosis, disease laterality, or number of veins involved. Survival to 72 weeks was 77% (37 of 48). Adverse events were common (n = 1489 total), but only 16 were definitely related to drug treatment, none of which were serious.

Conclusion

Survival to 72 weeks was 77% in a referral population with multivessel intraluminal PVS undergoing multimodal treatment, including antiproliferative tyrosine kinase blockade. Toxicity specific to tyrosine kinase blockade was minimal.

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