Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in Infants: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression

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ObjectiveTo quantify outcomes of infants (<1 year of age) diagnosed with pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS).Study designMEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Web of Science were searched through February 1, 2017, with no language restrictions. Publications including infants diagnosed with primary PVS, defined as the absence of preceding intervention(s), were considered. The study was performed according to Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines, the Systematic Reviews, and Meta-Analysis checklist, and registered prospectively. The quality of selected reports was critically examined. Data extraction was independently performed by multiple observers with outcomes agreed upon a priori. Data were pooled using an inverse variance heterogeneity model with incidence of mortality the primary outcome of interest.ResultsForty-eight studies of 185 infants were included. Studies were highly diverse with regards to the participants, interventions, and outcomes reported. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 5.0 (0.1-11.6) months. Pooled mortality was 58.5% (95% CI 49.8%-67.0%, I2 = 21.4%). We observed greater mortality incidence among infants with 3 or 4 vein stenoses than in those with 1 or 2 vein stenoses (83.3% vs 36.1%; P < .01). We observed greater mortality among infants with bilateral than unilateral disease (78.7% vs 26.0%; P < .01).ConclusionsStudies of primary PVS during infancy are highly variable in their methodological quality and estimates of clinical outcomes; therefore, estimates of prognosis remain uncertain. Multicenter, interdisciplinary collaborations, including alignment of key outcome measurements, are needed to answer questions beyond the scope of available data.

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