The Neu-Prem Trial: Neuromonitoring of Brains of Infants Born Preterm During Resuscitation—A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

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ObjectiveTo determine whether monitoring cerebral oxygen tissue saturation (StO2) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and brain activity with amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) can predict infants at risk for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and death in the first 72 hours of life.Study designA NIRS sensor and electroencephalography leads were placed on 127 newborns <32 weeks of gestational age at birth. Ten minutes of continuous NIRS and aEEG along with heart rate, peripheral arterial oxygen saturation, fraction of inspired oxygen, and mean airway pressure measurements were obtained in the delivery room. Once the infant was transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit, NIRS, aEEG, and vital signs were recorded until 72 hours of life. An ultrasound scan of the head was performed within the first 12 hours of life and again at 72 hours of life.ResultsThirteen of the infants developed any IVH or died; of these, 4 developed severe IVH (grade 3-4) within 72 hours. There were no differences in either cerebral StO2 or aEEG in the infants with low-grade IVH. Infants who developed severe IVH or death had significantly lower cerebral StO2 from 8 to 10 minutes of life.ConclusionsaEEG was not predictive of IVH or death in the delivery room or in the neonatal intensive care unit. It may be possible to use NIRS in the delivery room to predict severe IVH and early death.Trial NCT02605733.

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