Primary Care and Home Visiting Utilization Patterns among At-Risk Infants

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Abstract

Objective

To describe well child care (WCC) utilization in the first year of life among at-risk infants, and the relationship to home visiting enrollment.

Study design

Retrospective cohort study using linked administrative data for infants ≥34 weeks’ gestation from 2010 to 2014, within a regional, academic primary care system. Association between WCC visits and home visiting enrollment was evaluated using bivariate comparisons and multivariable Poisson regression. Latent class analysis further characterized longitudinal patterns of WCC attendance. Multivariable logistic regression tested the association between home visiting and pattern of timeliest adherence to recommended WCC.

Results

Of 11 936 infants, mean number of WCC visits was 4.1 in the first 12 months of life. Of 3910 infants eligible for home visiting, 28.5% were enrolled. Among enrolled infants, mean WCC visits was 4.7 vs 4.4 among eligible, nonenrolled infants, P value < .001. After multivariable adjustment, there was no significant association between enrollment and WCC visit count (adjusted incident rate ratio 1.03, 95% CI 0.99, 1.07). Using latent class analysis, 3 WCC classes were identified: infants in class 1 (77.7%) were most adherent to recommended WCC, class 2 (12.5% of cohort) had progressively declining WCC attendance over the first year of life, and class 3 (9.8%) maintained moderate attendance. In multivariable regression, home visiting was associated with class 1 membership, aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04, 1.57.

Conclusions

A pattern of timely WCC attendance was more likely among infants in home visiting; however, most infants eligible for home visiting were not enrolled.

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