Preliminary Findings of Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Infants Treated With Intravenous Fat Emulsion Reduction for the Management of Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis

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Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is linked with the administration of soybean-based intravenous fat emulsion (IVFE). IVFE reduction (IFER) may be an effective management strategy for PNAC; however, long-term associated neurodevelopmental outcomes (NDOs) for infants undergoing IFER have not been measured previously. This single-institution, prospective study examined the risk for negative NDOs and key predictors of NDOs associated with IFER.


Patients (2–5 years) treated with soybean-based IFER as neonates underwent NDO measurements, including Ages and Stages Questionnaires-3 (ASQ-3), Parents’ Evaluations of Developmental Status (PEDS), and Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition Preschool, Parent (BASC-2 PRS-P). The relationship between NDOs and predictive variables was evaluated.


A total of 25 children had a complete PEDS survey, and 17 were found to be “not at risk.” The BASC-2 PRS-P evaluation (n = 18 patients) showed that all 4 composite domains fell within the normative developmental range, and 67%-89% of patients were observed to be “typically developing.” For the primary outcome measure, ASQ-3, 82.4%-94.4% of patients were “not at risk.” Logistical regression analyses were performed to examine risk factors contributing to negative NDOs. Of children completing all NDO studies, IFER-related variables (eg, development of essential fatty acid deficiency, duration of IFER, and mean IVFE dose) were not found to be predictors of adverse NDOs.


This study represents the first report of NDOs in pediatric patients treated with IFER. IFER-treated patients score within the normative range most of the time. IFER-related variables were not found to be associated with negative NDOs. The results set the stage for a larger, multicenter, prospective study. (JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2015;39:34–46)

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