Thyroid hormones are integral to the development and maturation of the central nervous system as well as normal growth and development. Comprehensive knowledge of the maturation and function of the thyroid gland is essential to understanding the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunction. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment in thyroid disease are imperative for normalization of thyroid hormone ratios. Optimal management includes early introduction and strict adherence to a regimen of L-thyroxine and routine monitoring of thyroid levels throughout life. Parents need to understand the importance of consistent medication administration and daily assessment of well-being because these actions are crucial to the attainment of an optimal level of development for infants with congenital hypothyroidism.