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Imperforate anus is a malformation of the child's anus. Parents' experiences of responsibility for care of the child may differ. The aim of this study was to evaluate a gender perspective on the extent to which mothers and fathers each take responsibility for the care of a child with high and intermediate imperforate anus. Parents of children with imperforate anus and two control groups of children and parents participated. Data collection with questionnaires focusing on responsibility was performed. In conclusion, our study revealed additional evidence of unevenly divided parental responsibility for care of a child with a chronic condition. The mothers in this study were shown to be the primary caregiver.