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To determine the level of knowledge of first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among the parents of children who attended our Pediatric Emergency Department and to identify the factors that affect this knowledge.Descriptive, transversal study. A questionnaire was distributed anonymously among parents to collect data about their previous CPR training, knowledge and experience.A total 405 valid questionnaires were returned. The mean age of the sample was 38.08 (SD 7.1) years, and 66.9% of participants were female. The mean score of correctly answered questions was 6.76 out of 19 questions. Parents with a university education received a mean score of 7.16 versus 6.24 for those with a primary education (p = 0.022). Parents with previous training received a higher mean score (8.04 vs 6.17, respectively, p < 0.01).Parents with jobs related to healthcare or education received a higher mean score compared to those who did not (8.63, p < 0.01 and 7.16, p = 0.0013, respectively).No significant differences among parents with chronically ill children (p = 0.76) or related to the number of children (ρ = −0.101) were observed. Furthermore, 77.3% of parents expressed an interest in receiving further training.Knowledge of first aid among the general population is lacking. Parents with previous training in this field, those with a university-level education, and those who are healthcare providers and educational professionals received significantly higher scores.Studies based on surveys can be useful in estimating a population's knowledge base, allowing the development of community-based training activities.Knowledge of first aid among our population is lacking.Parents with previous training, university education and healthcare and educational professionals achieved higher scores.The most frequently failed questions were about to burns, loss of consciousness, cranial contusion, choking, and seizures.Regarding the results, specific training activities may be developed.