A phage-displayed combinatorial peptide library was used to define the specificity of one of the three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains in a novel cytoskeletal protein, named CAP, for Cbl Associated Protein. The C-terminal SH3 domain was used to affinity select peptides with the consensus, PXPPXRXSSL, from a library of X6PXXPX6 peptides. Peptide sequences resembling this consensus were identified in two signal transduction proteins, c-Cbl and son-on-sevenless (Sos), previously shown to interact with the C-terminal SH3 domain of CAP. Genetic fusion of 16 and 14 amino acid segments of c-Cbl and Sos, respectively, to bacterial alkaline phosphatase confirmed that these segments were potential ligand sites for the C-terminal SH3 domain of CAP. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the c-Cbl peptide ligand confirmed that most of the residues, which were conserved among the peptide ligands selected from the combinatorial peptide library, contributed to binding to the C-terminal SH3 domain of CAP.