Correlation between plasma and urinary caffeine levels in preterm infants

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We hypothesize that urine levels might be reliable to assess the therapeutic range of caffeine.


We correlated plasma and urinary levels of caffeine in preterm infants treated with this drug for apnea of prematurity.


Infants (n=56) were given a loading dose of caffeine citrate (10 mg/kg, per os) and 24 h later a maintenance dose (2 mg/kg, per os, once a day). Plasma and urinary levels of caffeine were determined 24 h after the loading dose (before administration of the maintenance dose) and then weekly.


Plasma and urinary levels correlate at all examined ages: 29 weeks (r = 0.92, P<0.001), 30 weeks (r = 0.97, P<0.001), 31 weeks (r = 0.82, P<0.001), 32 weeks (r = 0.92, P<0.001), 33 weeks (r = 0.87, P<0.001), 34 weeks (r = 0.81, P<0.001).


Urinary levels of caffeine might be a useful means to assess therapeutic ranges.

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