Maternal weight gain in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

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Abstract

Objective:

The aim of the study was to examine the perinatal outcomes in gestational diabetes in women with body mass index (BMI)-adjusted gestational weight gain (GWG) according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2009 recommendations.

Material and methods:

The clinic’s database was used to analyze 675 singleton GDM pregnancy outcomes. GWG for the entire pregnancy was compared to IOM recommendations and adjusted for prepregnancy BMI categories: underweight <18.5; normal 18.5–24.9; overweight 25–29.9; and obese >30. The study group was divided into three categories: below IOM limits, within IOM limits and above IOM limits.

Results:

Only 37% of women achieved the proper weight gain (n=256). Almost 30% of women with GDM (n=196) had an excessive weight gain. GWG above limits was associated with a significantly higher neonatal measurements and a higher rate of large-for-gestational-age neonates. In underweight and normal-prepregnancy-weight women, no relation between GWG and birth-weight percentile was noted. For the overweight and obese women, a positive significant correlation between GWG until GDM diagnosis and birth-weight percentile was noted (P=0.002), which was not present when GWG until delivery was considered.

Conclusions:

Limited weight gain in overweight and obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus results in favourable pregnancy outcomes.

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