Chronic inflammatory lesions of the placenta are associated with an up-regulation of amniotic fluid CXCR3: A marker of allograft rejection

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Objective:The objective of this study is to determine whether the amniotic fluid (AF) concentration of soluble CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9 and CXCL10 changes in patients whose placentas show evidence of chronic chorioamnionitis or other placental lesions consistent with maternal anti-fetal rejection.Methods:This retrospective case-control study included 425 women with (1) preterm delivery (n=92); (2) term in labor (n=68); and (3) term not in labor (n=265). Amniotic fluid CXCR3, CXCL9 and CXCL10 concentrations were determined by ELISA.Results:(1) Amniotic fluid concentrations of CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9 and CXCL10 are higher in patients with preterm labor and maternal anti-fetal rejection lesions than in those without these lesions [CXCR3: preterm labor and delivery with maternal anti-fetal rejection placental lesions (median, 17.24 ng/mL; IQR, 6.79-26.68) vs. preterm labor and delivery without these placental lesions (median 8.79 ng/mL; IQR, 4.98-14.7; P=0.028)]; (2) patients with preterm labor and chronic chorioamnionitis had higher AF concentrations of CXCL9 and CXCL10, but not CXCR3, than those without this lesion [CXCR3: preterm labor with chronic chorioamnionitis (median, 17.02 ng/mL; IQR, 5.57-26.68) vs. preterm labor without chronic chorioamnionitis (median, 10.37 ng/mL; IQR 5.01-17.81; P=0.283)]; (3) patients with preterm labor had a significantly higher AF concentration of CXCR3 than those in labor at term regardless of the presence or absence of placental lesions.Conclusion:Our findings support a role for maternal anti-fetal rejection in a subset of patients with preterm labor.

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