Association between genital mycoplasmas, acute chorioamnionitis and fetal pneumonia in spontaneous abortions

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Aim:Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis are also known as genital mycoplasmas. Acute chorioamnionitis is an inflammation of the placenta associated with miscarriage. We retrospectively evaluated a possible association between genital mycoplasmas detection, acute chorioamnionitis and fetal pneumonia from second and third trimester spontaneous abortions.Methods:One hundred and thirty placenta and fetal lung samples were evaluated for histological examination. The placenta samples, along with corresponding fetal tracheo-bronchial aspirates, also underwent bacterial and fungal culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of genital mycoplasmas.Results:Acute chorioamnionitis and pneumonia were diagnosed in 80/130 (61.5%) and 22/130 (16.9%) samples, respectively. Among samples positive for acute chorioamnionitis, the proportion of samples positive by real-time PCR and/or culture, was significantly higher than that of negative controls [54/80 (67.5%) vs. 26/80 (32.5%); P<0.001]. Ureaplasma parvum detection was significantly associated with acute chorioamnionitis compared to controls [9/11 (81.8%) vs. 2/11 (18.2%); P=0.019], as well as U. urealyticum [6/7 (85.7%) vs. 1/7 (14.3%); P=0.039]. Among tracheo-bronchial aspirates from abortions with pneumonia, the proportion of real-time PCR and/or culture positive samples was significantly higher than that of controls [13/22 (59.1%) vs. 9/22 (40.9%); P=0.029].Conclusions:A strong association was found between acute histologic chorioamnionitis and microbial invasion with U. parvum and/or U. urealyticum.

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