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Different etiologies for recurrent pregnancy loss have been identified, among them are: anatomical, endocrine, genetic, chromosomal and thrombophilia pathologies.To assess medical and obstetric characteristics, and pregnancy outcomes, among women with uterine abnormalities and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). This study also aims to assess the impact of uterine anatomic surgical correction on pregnancy outcomes.A retrospective case control study of 313 patients with two or more consecutive pregnancy losses followed by a subsequent (index) pregnancy. Anatomic abnormalities were detected in 80 patients. All patients were evaluated and treated in the RPL clinic at Soroka University Medical Center. Out of 80 patients with uterine anatomic abnormalities, 19 underwent surgical correction, 32 did not and 29 had no clear record of surgical intervention, and thus were excluded from this study.Women with anatomic abnormalities had a higher rate of previous cesarean section (18.8% vs. 8.6%, P=0.022), tended to have a lower number of previous live births (1.05 vs. 1.37, P=0.07), and a higher rate of preterm delivery (22.9% vs. 10%, P=0.037). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, anatomic abnormality was identified as an independent risk factor for RPL in patients with previous cesarean section after controlling for place of residence, positive genetic/autoimmune/endocrine workup, and fertility problems (OR 7.22; 95% CI 1.17-44.54, P=0.03). Women suffering from anatomic abnormalities tended to have a higher rate of pregnancy loss compared to those without anatomic abnormalities (40% vs. 30.9%, P=0.2). The difference in pregnancy loss rate among women who underwent surgical correction compared to those who did not was not statistically significant.In patients with previous cesarean section, uterine abnormality is an independent risk factor for pregnancy loss. Surgical correction of uterine abnormalities among RPL patients might have the potential to improve live birth rate.