A gastrostomy-fed rat infant "pup-in-a-cup" model was used to test the hypothesis that enterally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) decreases the proinflammatory response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the developing infant rat small intestine, plasma, lung and liver.Methods:
Two groups of 6- to 7-day-old pups were fed a rat milk substitute with LPS added via the gastrostomy tube for 6 days. One of the rat milk substitute-fed groups received supplemental LGG; another group received LPS without LGG. Age-matched mother-fed rat pups were used as controls.Results:
LPS treatment blunted body growth, but LGG supplementation had no effect on weight increments. LGG decreased LPS-induced inflammation in intestinal tissue; CINC-1 (rodent IL-8 equivalent) production in plasma, liver, lung and distal small intestine; and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production in plasma and lung. Cytokine multiplex assay showed lung interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, growth-related oncogene (GRO)/KC (rat CINC-1) and TNF-α were significantly higher in gastrostomy-fed, LPS-treated pups than in mother-reared pups, and LGG significantly blunted the LPS-induced elevation of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-18, GRO/KC and TNF-α; liver GRO/KC was significantly higher in gastrostomy-fed, LPS-treated pups than in mother-reared pups, and LGG significantly blunted the LPS-induced elevation of GRO/KC.Conclusions:
LGG provided by the enteral route is able to downregulate LPS-induced proinflammatory mediators. This effect is not only present in the splanchnic organs, that is, the intestine and the liver, but extends to the plasma and a distal organ, the lung. JPGN 42:545-552, 2006.