Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder caused by ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. It is a chronic, multiorgan disease in which small-intestinal mucosal damage may lead to malabsorption of nutrients. In the last years, several studies suggested a protective role of breast-feeding and/or the timing and quantity of gluten introduction in the subsequent development of CD. Especially, prolonged breast feeding during the introduction of gluten-containing feeding has been associated with a reduced risk of developing CD in infancy. The focus of this review was to present the actual knowledge of the possible preventive influence of early nutrition on the risk to develop CD.