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The present study sought to determine the long-term growth consequences after a pulmonary exacerbation in children with cystic fibrosis (CF).Retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients with CF with a hospital admission for a pulmonary exacerbation. Logistic regression used to determine risk factors for failure to recover baseline body mass index (BMI) percentile.Of 72 patients, 43% failed to recover their baseline BMI percentile 12 months after discharge and these patients also had a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second at follow-up. A greater decrease in weight percentile from baseline to admission was the only risk factor identified (odds ratio 0.83, P = 0.0015).Greater decrease in weight percentile from baseline to admission predicts failure to recover BMI percentile 1 year after a pulmonary exacerbation. Children with CF with poor growth preceding a pulmonary exacerbation continue to be at risk for long-term nutritional failure despite treatment for pulmonary exacerbation.