Pediatric literature on spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is limited. We evaluated the prevalence, subtypes, clinical profile, and effect on outcome of ascitic fluid infection (AFI) in children with liver disease.Methods:
Children with liver disease-related ascites and subjected to paracentesis were classified as no-AFI and AFI (SBP, culture-negative neutrocytic ascites [CNNA], and monomicrobial non-neutrocytic bacterascites). Clinical and laboratory parameters, in-hospital mortality, and outcome in follow-up were noted.Results:
Two hundred sixty-two children (163 boys; age 84 [1–240] months, chronic liver disease [CLD, n = 173], non-CLD [n = 89]) were enrolled. A total of 28.6% (n = 75) had SBP/CNNA, more common in CLD than non-CLD (55/173 [31.7%] vs 20/89 [22.4%]; P = 0.1). A total of 50.6% SBP/CNNA cases were symptomatic for AFI. Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 70% SBP cases. Twenty-five percent (18/72) CLD children with AFI had a poor hospital outcome, with INR, Child-Pugh score and gastrointestinal bleeding predicting outcome on multivariate analysis. Patients with CLD with SBP had higher in-hospital mortality (10/20 vs 5/35; P = 0.01) than those with CNNA, but similar Child-Pugh score (12[7–15] vs 11[7–14]; P = 0.1), recurrence of AFI (3/9 vs 6/24; P = 0.6) and mortality in follow-up (22.2% vs 25%; P = 0.1). Patients with CLD with SBP/CNNA had higher mortality over 1 year follow-up than no-AFI (24.2% [8/33] vs 12.2% [7/57]; P = 0.1) but the difference was not significant.Conclusions:
A total of 28.6% children with liver disease-related ascites have SBP/CNNA; 50% are symptomatic. Patients with CLD with SBP/CNNA have a mortality of 24% over 1year follow-up. CLD with SBP is similar to CNNA except for higher in-hospital mortality.