The secreted metabolites of probiotics are cytoprotective to intestinal epithelium and have been shown to attenuate inflammation and reduce gut permeability. The present study was designed to determine the protective effects of probiotic conditioned media (PCM) from Bifidobacterium infantis (BCM) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LCM) on interleukin (IL)-1β–induced intestinal barrier compromise.Methods:
The epithelial barrier was determined by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) across a Caco-2 cell monolayer using a Transwell model. The paracellular permeability was determined by fluorescein isothiocyanate–labeled dextran flux. The expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 were determined using Western blot and the distribution of NF-κB p65 was determined by immunofluorescence staining.Results:
BCM and LCM induced a dose-dependent increase in Caco-2 TER after 4 and 24 hours of incubation (P < 0.05). The maximal increase of Caco-2 TER occurred at 4 hours of treatment with a PCM concentration of 15%. Preincubation with BCM and LCM for 4 hours significantly prevented the decrease of Caco-2 TER induced by 24 hours of stimulation with 10 ng/mL IL-1β. BCM and LCM decreased paracellular permeability in both stimulated and unstimulated Caco-2 monolayers (P < 0.05). IL-1β stimulation decreased occludin expression and increased claudin-1 expression in Caco-2 cells (P < 0.05), which was prevented in cells treated with BCM or LCM. The changes of claudin-1 expression in H4 cells were similar to Caco-2 cells in response to PCM treatment and IL-1β stimulation; however, a similar response in occludin was not demonstrated. The IL-1β–induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in Caco-2 cells was prevented by pretreatment with both PCMs.Conclusions:
BCM and LCM protected the intestinal barrier against IL-1β stimulation by normalizing the protein expression of occludin and claudin-1 and preventing IL-1β–induced NF-κB activation in Caco-2 cells, which may be partly responsible for the preservation of intestinal permeability.