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Increased incidence and prevalence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been reported in Western countries. Changes in the prevalence of pediatric IBD in Asian countries, however, remain unclear. We evaluated the changes in the prevalence of IBD among Japanese adults and children from 2004 to 2013, by using the Japanese national registry data of patients receiving financial aid. Data from children (ages 0–19 years) were compared with those from young adults (ages 20–39 years). In 2004, age-standardized prevalences of Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) among children were 4.2 of 100,000 and 11.0 of 100,000, respectively. The corresponding prevalences among young adults were 41.0 of 100,000 and 89.8 of 100,000, respectively. In 2013, age-standardized prevalences of pediatric CD and UC were 7.2 of 100,000 and 15.0 of 100,000, respectively. During this period, prevalence of pediatric CD increased by 73.8% among children and by 49.0% in young adults. The prevalence of UC increased by 45.0% among children, and by 73.7% among young adults.