Paediatric autoimmune liver disease is characterized by inflammatory liver histology, circulating autoantibodies, and increased levels of IgG, in the absence of a known etiology. Three conditions have a likely autoimmune pathogenesis: autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. Two types of pediatric AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (AIH-1) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 and/or anti-liver cytosol type 1 antibodies (AIH-2).
Pertinent issues addressing the diagnosis, treatment, and long-term follow-up were formulated by a core group of ESPGHAN members. They have commissioned the first authors with execution of this project. Initially, they have performed a systematic literature search on MEDLINE, ResearchGate, and Mendeley databases during the last 30 years and produced a document focusing on prospective and retrospective studies in children. The ESPGHAN core group and ESPGHAN Hepatology Committee members voted on each recommendation, using a formal voting technique.