Hemolytic Anemia Associated with Cold Agglutinin During Chickenpox and a Review of the Literature

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Purpose: To describe the findings and cause ot anemia and jaundice in a 2-year-old boy.

Patient and Methods: This boy was admitted with a hemoglobin of 7.8 g/dL. a bilirubin of 1.8 mg/dL, and increased urobilinogen.

Results: On the second day alter admission, hemolylic anemia associated with an anti-l cold agglutinin was diagnosed, which was transient and recovered without any treatment.

Conclusion: This is a very rare complication of chickenpox: only live cases have been previously reported and these were all characterized by anti-Pr cold agglutinin with hemolytic anemia after the onset of chickenpox. We report the first case of hemolytic anemia associated with an anti-1 cold agglutinin during the incubation period of chickenpox.

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