Concomitant Use of Acyclovir and Intravenous Immunoglobulin Rescues an Immunocompromised Child With Disseminated Varicella Caused Multiple Organ Failure

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Varicella is a common and mild disease in healthy children. However, when patients are in immunocompromised conditions, such as receiving chemotherapy for cancer treatment, they are highly vulnerable and it can even prove lethal. Herein, we report a 14-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who was receiving chemotherapy for induction with vincristine, idarubicin, L-asparaginase, and prednisolone, presented with typical varicella skin lesions and varicella-zoster virus was detected in his serum by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). His condition was advanced to multiple organs failure, including fulminant hepatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and myocarditis despite acyclovir administration. After a combined therapy with intravenous acyclovir and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, his condition was dramatically improved. We suggest that IVIG may be used immediately with acyclovir when immunocompromised patients with varicella advanced to dissemination are identified.

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