Azacitidine in the Treatment of Pediatric Therapy-related Myelodysplastic Syndrome After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

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Abstract

We herein present a case of pediatric therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) with complex karyotype who was treated with azacitidine (AZA) for AML1-EVI1 fusion transcript as minimal residual disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The patient was started on AZA 41 days after the HSCT without having achieved complete remission. After 9 cycles of AZA, the AML1-EVI1 fusion transcript disappeared, and there was no manifestation of graft versus host disease during AZA treatment. Preemptive AZA treatment for minimal residual disease has an acceptable safety profile and appears to be an effective strategy for preventing or substantially delaying hematological relapse in pediatric patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome after HSCT.

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