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We conducted this study to determine the role of iron deficiency (ID) as a risk factor for simple febrile seizure (SFS) in 6- to 60-month-old children.In this case-control study 100 children aged 6 to 60 months with febrile seizure (FS) (study group) and 100 febrile children without seizures (control group) admitted to Pediatric Departments of Kecioren Training and Research Hospital in between June 2014 and March 2015 were evaluated. Complete blood count, serum iron, plasma ferritin, and total iron binding capacity analyses were performed in children with FS and were compared with controls.Ferritin level was significantly lower in the study group than controls (P<0.05). Compared with the onset of the study (first day), ferritin levels of the study group significantly decreased at the 10th day (P<0.05). At the onset, we were not able to determine ID in 18% of children because of fever.There was a relationship between low plasma ferritin level and SFS. Low plasma ferritin level may be a risk factor for the development of SFS. For preventing the FS attacks, treatment of present ID and oral supplementary iron therapy should be initiated for children with SFS who have a low plasma ferritin.