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Oligodendrogliomas occurring rarely in children are incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to identify prognostic factors affecting the local control and survival in the management of children with oligodendrogliomas. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data on 20 pediatric patients with oligodendrogliomas treated at Chang Gung Children’s Hospital between 1994 and 2014. There were 12 males and 8 females with a median age of 9.2 years at diagnosis (range, 3 mo to 18 y). Eighteen (90%) tumors were located in the cerebral hemispheres, 10 cases were located on the right, 8 on the left. One was located in the third ventricle and 1 in the thoracic spine. Presenting symptoms included seizures (n=7), headache (n=5), visual field defects (n=3), limb weakness (n=2), vomiting (n =1), back pain (n=1), and increased head circumference (n=1). All patients underwent craniotomy: 8 gross total resections, 8 subtotal resections, and 4 biopsies. Nine of the patients had pure oligodendroglioma and 11 had anaplastic oligodendroglioma (WHO grade III or IV). Ten children had adjuvant therapy including radiation (n=7), chemotherapy (n=1) or both (n=2). With the median follow-up of 5.3 years (range, 1.2 to 14.7 y), the 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 78.9% with 65.0%, respectively. Total tumor resection offers better overall survival regardless of the histologic grading. Our data demonstrate that patients with less than gross total resections are at increased risk for progression and may benefit from more aggressive therapy.