Oral Pyogenic Granuloma After Bone Marrow Transplant in the Pediatric/Adolescent Population: Report of 5 Cases

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Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a benign, neoplastic, soft tissue growth of granulation and fibrous tissue that may rarely occur in the mouth of patients after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). This case series describes 5 pediatric/adolescent patients who developed oral PG after HCT for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Fanconi anemia, nodular sclerosis Hodgkin’s lymphoma, or junctional epidermolysis bullosa. The underlying mechanism for the appearance of oral PG after HCT is unknown, but it is suggested that calcineurin inhibitors used for graft versus host disease (GVHD) may play a role, as all patients were on cyclosporine A or tacrolimus at the time of development of oral PG. Three of the patients were being treated for chronic GVHD, and 1 other treated for acute GVHD. Overall, this report illustrates that PG should be considered in the differential diagnoses when encountering oral lesions in pediatric/adolescent patients after undergoing HCT, especially in the context of chronic GVHD and calcineurin inhibitors use.

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