Alternative Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Conditioned With Myeloablative Busulfan, Fludarabine, and Melphalan is Well Tolerated and Effective Against High-risk Myeloid Malignancies

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Busulfan, fludarabine, and melphalan as hematopoietic cell transplant conditioning, was used in 6 patients aged 1 to 19 years with very high-risk myeloid malignancies. This dose regimen had an acceptable toxicity profile resulting in complete donor engraftment even following transplantation of small 2/6 antigen disparate umbilical cord blood grafts. It provided excellent disease control as all patients had high-risk features in terms of cytogenetics, therapy-related leukemia, and/or significant measurable disease before transplant. All patients remain in remission, without acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease with a median follow-up of 24 months. A larger study is indicated to confirm the efficacy and safety of this regimen.

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