Renal Tumors in Children Younger Than 12 Months of Age: A 65-Year Single Institution Review

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Abstract

Wilms tumor (WT) is the most prevalent pediatric renal tumor and most commonly occurs between ages 1 and 5 years. Data are lacking on children younger than 12 months with renal tumors. The cancer registry at the authors’ institution was queried to identify patients 12 months and younger with renal masses. Demographics, clinical presentation, histopathology, stage, and survival outcomes were reviewed. The most common presenting symptoms included an asymptomatic abdominal mass (73%) and hematuria (9%). Histopathology revealed WT in 73% of patients, mesoblastic nephroma in 20%. Of those infants younger than 1 month of age, mesoblastic nephroma was the most common histopathology (68%). The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 93%, and 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was 93% for the entire group. For patients with WT, 5-year OS was 88% and 5-year EFS was 83%. Outcomes for congenital mesoblastic nephroma were excellent with 5-year OS and EFS of 100%. Reasons for good prognosis may be multifactorial and may include frequent well child checks in the first year of life and favorable histology. Patients in this age group are more likely to be classified as very low risk and may be treated with surgical resection alone.

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