Bacterial Infections in Children With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Receiving Ciprofloxacin Prophylaxis

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The aim of the study was to describe the incidence and type of bacterial infections associated with the use of ciprofloxacin prophylaxis as single agent in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).


This was a retrospective review of all patients with AML, who were treated according to the AML02 protocol between 2011 and 2015. The medical records were reviewed for any positive cultures from the initiation of the protocol until death or protocol discontinuation. Patient demographics, type of infections, type of isolated bacteria, and intensive care unit admissions were recorded.


A total of 50 patients were evaluated, who were of a mean age of 8 years±5.1 (SD). We identified 77 episodes of bacterial infections in 42 (84%) patients. Among those bacterial infections, 73 episodes were with bacteremia and included 45 (62%) gram-positive bacterial infections, 24 (33%) gram-negative bacterial infections, and 4 (6%) mixed gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial infections. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Viridans streptococci were the most commonly isolated bacteria in 33% and 30% of the episodes, respectively. Seventeen (45%) patients with bacteremia required intensive care unit admission.


A high rate of bacterial infection was detected in patients who received the AML02 protocol, mainly gram-positive bacterial infections. The prophylactic regimen should be reconsidered for its efficacy, and other antibacterial prophylaxis may be used.

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