Epigenetic Combination Therapy for Children With Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)/Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and Concurrent Solid Tumor Relapse

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Secondary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare but devastating complication of solid tumor treatment involving high-dose topoisomerase II inhibitor and alkylator chemotherapy. For relapsed or elderly MDS and AML patients ineligible for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, epigenetic therapies, including DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inhibitors, have been utilized as palliative therapy, offering a well-tolerated approach to disease stabilization, prolonged survival, and quality of life. Literature on the use of epigenetic therapies for both primary and relapsed disease is scarce in the pediatric population. Here, we report 2 pediatric patients with secondary AML and MDS, respectively, due to prior therapy for metastatic solid tumors. Both patients were ineligible for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation due to concurrent solid tumor relapse, but were treated with the epigenetic combination therapy, decitabine and vorinostat, and achieved stabilization of marrow disease, outpatient palliation, and family-reported reasonable quality of life.

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