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We describe a rare case of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection, with infiltration of the skeletal muscle. A 19-year-old woman with swollen cervical lymph nodes and a fever was referred to our hospital. Swelling of the trapezium muscle and elevation of creatinine kinase level were observed. Biopsy results of the brachialis muscle revealed infiltration of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA-positive CD8+ T lymphocytes. The EBV virus load in the peripheral blood was high, and EBV monoclonality was determined by Southern blot analysis. Owing to the rarity of CAEBV with skeletal muscle infiltration, this case alerts physicians to the potential diagnostic pitfalls of CAEBV.