Therapy discontinuations and toxicities occur because of significant interindividual variations in 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and methotrexate (MTX) response during maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). 6-MP/MTX intolerance in some of the patients cannot be explained by thiopurine S-methyl transferase (TPMT) gene variants. In this study, we aimed to investigate candidate pharmacogenetic determinants of 6-MP and MTX intolerance in Turkish ALL children.Methods:
In total, 48 children with ALL who had completed or were receiving maintenance therapy according to Children’s Oncology Group (COG) protocols were enrolled. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 8 candidate genes that were related to drug toxicity or had a role in the 6-MP/MTX metabolism (TPMT, ITPA, MTHFR, IMPDH2, PACSIN2, SLCO1B1, ABCC4, and PYGL) were genotyped by competitive allele-specific PCR (KASP). Drug doses during maintenance therapy were modified according to the protocol.Results:
The median drug dose intensity was 50% (28% to 92%) for 6-MP and 58% (27% to 99%) for MTX in the first year of maintenance therapy, which were lower than that scheduled in all patients. Among the analyzed polymorphisms, variant alleles in SLCO1B1 rs4149056 and rs11045879 were found to be associated with lower 6-MP/MTX tolerance.Conclusions:
SLCO1B1 rs4149056 and rs11045879 polymorphisms may be important genetic markers to individualize 6-MP/MTX doses.