Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome Masquerading as Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder

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We present a case of a 2-year-old female presenting with diffuse lymphadenopathy 2 years following orthotopic heart transplant. Initially, she was diagnosed with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease based on clinical presentation and pathology and she was treated accordingly. Because of persistent lymphadenopathy following the completion of chemotherapy and new onset of autoimmune cytopenias, repeat flow of the lymph node showed an elevated double negative T-cell population prompting evaluation for autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). A complete workup was confirmative of a germline Fas mutation consistent with ALPS-FAS. This case emphasizes the importance of considering ALPS-FAS in a patient with lymphadenopathy of unknown cause.

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