Childhood Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm Mimicking Acute Rheumatic Fever: Report of an Unusual Clinical Presentation and Review of Literature

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Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is very rarely diagnosed in children with less than 50 cases in the literature.


We report a case of childhood BPDCN who mimicked acute rheumatic fever at presentation. Majority of the reported childhood BPDCN received acute lymphoblastic leukemia–like chemotherapy with/without stem cell therapy, whereas those who received acute myeloid leukemia–like therapy predominantly succumbed to disease or sepsis. Overall 68% of the patients were alive and achieved complete remission with an overall prognosis slightly better in children compared with adults.


The case is reported due to its unique unusual clinical presentation and its rarity in pediatric population.

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