Dengue-associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: A Rare Complication of a Common Infection in Singapore

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Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) can progress rapidly, often leading to multisystem organ failure and death. Prompt recognition of the syndrome and institution of appropriate treatment are crucial steps in improving the outcome. Dengue virus infection is not commonly known to be associated with secondary HLH. We present a case of a child with dengue fever who subsequently developed classical features of HLH. He was treated successfully with 4 weeks of steroid monotherapy instead of the multidrug therapy proposed in the HLH 2004 protocol. There was prompt response to the treatment with resolution of clinical and biochemical features. He remains in complete remission 3 years from the diagnosis.

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