Evaluation of the Use of Fosaprepitant for the Prevention of Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatric Patients

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A neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist is recommended with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in adult patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Data for fosaprepitant use in pediatric patients is lacking. A retrospective chart review was conducted using an electronic medical record to characterize the use of fosaprepitant in patients aged 10 months to 18 years at a single institution from August 2015 to January 2017. Thirty-nine patients received fosaprepitant 4 mg/kg (maximum, 150 mg) for prevention of CINV, and 35 were included in the analysis. Ten patients 5 years of age or older who received fosaprepitant after October 2016 were eligible for a follow-up phone call to assess control of delayed CINV. Complete control of emesis was observed in 89% of patients during the acute phase, 63% during the delayed phase, and 60% overall. Overall incidence of nausea as documented in the medical record was 43%. Among the 10 patients who completed follow-up phone calls, 30% experienced emesis and 50% experienced nausea after discharge. Fosaprepitant may be safe and effective in the prevention of CINV in pediatric patients as young as 10 months of age.

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