Experience and Prognosis of Systemic Neonatal Thrombosis at a Level III NICU

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Abstract

Objective:

The objective of this article was to evaluate neonates diagnosed systemic thrombosis and their outcomes.

Methods:

We retrospectively evaluated data of neonatal systemic thrombosis between January 2011 and December 2016.

Results:

Among 4376 hospitalized, 30 neonates (0.69%) were diagnosed systemic thrombosis. Their mean birth weight was 2422±1152 g (680 to 4750 g), gestational age was 35±5.4 weeks (25 to 41 wk). There were 25 neonates (83.3%) with venous, 5 patients (16.7%) with arterial thrombosis. The most common sites that thrombi localized were major vessels (n=11) and central nervous system (n=8). Central catheter insertion (76.7%) and prematurity (46.7%) were the most common risk factors. Congenital prothrombotic risk factors included G1691A mutation in factor V Leiden (n=1), mutation in factor XIII (n=1), C677T mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (n=6). More than 1 congenital risk factor was identified in 5 patients. The patients were treated with low-molecular weight heparin. The mortality rate was 13.3% (n=4). Two patients required amputation (left foot, left upper extremity). Unilateral renal atrophy (n=1), cerebral palsy (n=2), hemiparesis (n=1) were identified among followed 24 patients.

Conclusions:

Critically ill neonates are at risk for thrombosis, and devastating consequences can result. As indwelling catheters and prematurity are important, careful monitorization, early diagnosis and therapy, cautious care of central catheter might reduce the incidence and adverse outcome.

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