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The study investigated the level of adherence and factors affecting adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART).The study sample consisted of 300 HIV-infected patients who received ART in the Antiretroviral Clinic of Central Hospital, Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria. Self-reported adherence to ART in the previous 1 month prior to the study as well as determinants of adherence were assessed using a questionnaire.The most frequently used ART regimen was zidovudine + lamivudine + nevirapine. On the whole, a total of 33 (11%) respondents missed 3 doses or less in the previous month prior to the survey. There was a statistically significant association between adherence to ART and marital status, source of income, and occupation (P < .05). The most commonly reported reasons for missed doses were forgetfulness (60.4%), busy daily task (18.3%), and avoiding being seen while taking medications (11%).The prevalence of adherence among the participants was high. However, more serious efforts are needed to reduce the number of in-adherent patients. Interventions to improve adherence to ART should address challenges such as forgetfulness among the patients and frequent occurrence of adverse effects and consider specific patient-related factors such as daily tasks.