Efficacy and Safety of Patiromer in Hyperkalemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Background:Patients at the highest risk of hyperkalemia are those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 and 4.Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of patiromer in hyperkalemia in patients with heart failure or CKD.Methods:The Cochrane Renal Group’s Specialized Register was searched through contact with the Trials’ Search Coordinator. We aimed at including randomized controlled trials with patiromer in patients with developed or risks of developing hyperkalemia, comparing against an active comparator or placebo. Three studies matched our inclusion and exclusion criteria, which we included in the meta-analysis. All-cause mortality, reduction in hospitalization, episodes of hypokalemia or hyperkalemia, and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal adverse events during the treatment period were our primary outcomes. Serial change in serum potassium (K+) until end of treatment or follow-up during the trial period and all other reported adverse reactions during the treatment period were our secondary outcomes. Meta-analysis (RevMan version 5.3.5) and descriptive statistics were used.Results:There was a non-significant improvement in all-cause mortality and serious cardiovascular events with patiromer than placebo. Hospitalization data were unavailable. Although serious gastrointestinal events were more common with placebo, there was a significant reduction (P = .02) in the risk of non-serious gastrointestinal events with placebo. Patiromer lowered serum K+ more than placebo, and there were more patients developing hyperkalemia with placebo. High-dose patiromer was associated with better efficacy in some parameters but with more adverse events.Conclusion:Although patiromer seems promising, more trials with active comparator are essential to finalize its indication and use in hyperkalemia.

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