The Feasibility and Impact of Prospective Medication Review in the Emergency Department

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Objective:We evaluated the feasibility and impact of prospective medication review (PMR) in the emergency department (ED).Methods:This was a retrospective cohort study of all nonadmitted ED patients who were prescribed medication orders by ED clinicians from September 2014 to September 2015 to determine the time intervals utilized during each step of the medication use process and quantify the number of interventions conducted by the pharmacist and cost avoidance accrued from the interventions.Results:A total of 834 medication orders were included for evaluation. The median time for order verification, order verification to dispense, and dispense to administration were 3 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] = 1-7 minutes), 20 minutes (IQR = 7-45 minutes), and 10 minutes (IQR = 6-16 minutes). The median time interval for order verification was longer during the overnight pharmacy shift (median = 5 minutes, IQR = 2-9 minutes) compared to the day and evening shifts (median = 3 minutes, IQR = 1-6 minutes). A total of 563 interventions were recommended by the pharmacists and accepted by ED clinicians. These interventions equated to US$47 585 worth of cost avoidance.Conclusion:The PMR is a feasible process that resulted in safe and effective use of medications without causing delays to patient care.

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