Managing Nonoperable Intracranial Bleeding Associated With Apixaban: A Series of 2 Cases

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Abstract

Objective:

To report 2 cases of nonoperable intracranial bleeding associated with apixaban managed by 3-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC3).

Case Summaries:

Case 1 presented with a 1.3-cm left parieto-occipital hemorrhage and a thin subdural hematoma (SDH) on the left tentorium of the brain about 6 hours after his last dose of apixaban. Case 2 presented with a 4-mm left parafalcine SDH with time of most recent apixaban dose unknown. The patients received 24.9 to 25.5 U/kg of PCC3 with none to 1 U fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and demonstrated minimal or no progression in lesions measured by repeat computed tomography (CT) after treatment. One patient was discharged to a skilled nursing facility after 8 days; the other patient was discharged to home after 18 days.

Discussion:

Apixaban has no specific antidote. Current bleeding management strategies are based on expert opinion. The risks and benefits for differing strategies are unclear, and little clinical experience for managing apixaban-associated intracranial bleeding has been reported to date. These cases describe the clinical use of PCC3 to manage parieto-occipital and subdural hemorrhage associated with apixaban in events not requiring surgical intervention.

Conclusion:

In these 2 cases, 25 U/kg PCC3, with none to one unit FFP, ceased apixaban-associated intracranial bleeding without apparent thrombogenic complications.

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