Pharmacy Student Monitoring of Direct Oral Anticoagulants

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Best practice recommendations are lacking. Thus far, literature has described pharmacist-led DOAC monitoring.


The purpose of this study is to describe a DOAC monitoring program involving pharmacy students.


This was an observational analysis of a quality improvement initiative. A clinical pharmacist preceptor identified clinic patients taking DOACs by running a report using the electronic medical record. Pharmacy students conducted chart reviews, called pharmacies for 6-month refill histories, and interviewed and educated patients. Findings were communicated to the care team and interventions were performed as applicable with the preceptor.


Of 90 patients included, the mean age was 63 years, 54% were female, and 65.6% were black or African American. Rivaroxaban and apixaban were used most commonly. Sixty-two percent of DOACs were prescribed for atrial fibrillation/flutter, while 32.2% for venous thromboembolism. The mean MPR was 77.1%, with 27.7% of patients having an MPR ≤60%. Of the 136 student-led interventions, 25.2% involved medication access, 24.4% adherence education, 20.7% processing refills, 14.8% laboratory monitoring recommendations, 8.9% switching or recommending switching to another anticoagulant, and 4.4% stopping a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or aspirin.


Pharmacy students can help to ensure medication safety and effective use of DOACs.

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