Summer reproduction of the planktonic copepod Calanus sinicus in the Yellow Sea: influences of high surface temperature and cold bottom water

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Abstract

We have observed that Calanus sinicus retreated from neritic areas in the Yellow Sea and concentrated in the Yellow Sea Cold Bottom Water (YSCBW) area in summer. To investigate the summer reproductive strategy of C. sinicus in this situation, effects of high temperature on reproduction and hatching, as well as geographical variation of in situ egg production rate, were studied by onboard incubation in August 2001. Diel vertical migration (DVM) of females was investigated within and outside the YSCBW, respectively. Onboard incubation at 27°C (i.e. surface temperature) resulted in lower fecundities than that at 9.8 and 12°C (i.e. bottom temperature inside and outside the YSCBW) together with decreased hatching rates and increased naupliar malformation. Egg production was more active at stations outside the YSCBW than inside, where chlorophyll-a concentration was also relatively low. Females inside the YSCBW underwent DVM although they rarely entered the surface layer, but DVM was not observed outside the YSCBW. We conclude that surface temperature in summer has deleterious effects on C. sinicus egg production and hatching, and that it cannot reproduce successfully over the whole area. Inside the YSCBW, egg production is depressed by low food availability, while females outside suffer from high temperatures because of strong vertical mixing.

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