High Calanus finmarchicus abundances were recorded in wintertime in Vestfjorden, close to the main cod breeding grounds off Lofoten and Vesterålen, northern Norway. The mean abundance for locations with water depth >500 m was ∼37000 ind. m−2 (range: 26700-49000 ind. m−2). To our knowledge, this is the first report of massive overwintering of C. finmarchicus on the Norwegian shelf. Because of the observed size and location of this population, we argue that local overwintering on the northern Norwegian shelf can contribute significantly to sustain a C. finmarchicus population on the shelf during the period of first feeding for cod larvae. This is supported by a particle tracking model.