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Thirty years after its description by Masquelet in 1986, this is the first systematic review aiming to critically evaluate the ‘induced membrane technique’ effectiveness in achieving bone union in children. Only six papers fulfilled our inclusion criteria (54 patients). The relatively small number of reported cases did not allow a formal meta-analysis. The tibia was the most involved bone. Most frequent aetiologies were congenital pseudoarthrosis and tumour resections. Although effective in achieving bone healing in ∼91% of the patients (bone defects ≤24 cm long), the induced membrane technique was associated with a high rate of complications (54% of patients). Level of Evidence: IV.