A minimally invasive (sinus tarsi) approach with percutaneous K-wires fixation for intra-articular calcaneal fractures in children

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the management of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures in children at our pediatric orthopedic and to determine the results following open reduction via minimally invasive sinus tarsi approach and fixation with Kirschner wires (K-wires). Overall, 25 available cases of calcaneal fractures in children with mean age of 9.8 years were treated by open reduction from January 2010 to December 2015. All patients were followed up from 12 to 30 months (mean: 19 months). Clinical functional outcomes were graded using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot scores. Radiographic evaluation included measurement of the Bohler’s angle and Gissane’s angle of the calcaneus on the lateral view. All fractures healed within 3 months. According to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society foot scoring system, the mean scores of type II fractures were 92.7±2.1, type III 90.2±1.8, and type IV 89.7±2.7 at the latest follow-up. The preoperative and postoperative Bohler’s angles were 17.1°±10.7° and 35.9°±6.7° in Sanders type II fractures, 14.4°±11.5° and 34.7°±8.5° in type III, 9.3°±9.7° and 35.1°±4.9° in type IV, respectively. The preoperative and postoperative Gissane’s angles were 102.6°±11.5° and 125.7°±7.8° in Sanders type II fractures, 101.7°±9.1° and 117.5°±10.8° (P<0.05) in type III, and 104.7°±5.1° and 122.8°±9.1° (P<0.05) in type IV, respectively. No secondary arthrosis has been observed so far. No deep infection and wound necrosis occurred. One patient had superficial infection around K-wires that was managed using dressings. Treatment of calcaneal fractures in children by open reduction by sinus tarsi approach and K-wires fixation is a safe and effective method with low incidence of complications.

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