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The purpose of this study was to describe the psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and to examine the relationship of children's characteristics with psychosocial adjustment and HRQoL in South Korea. Participants were 53 children who survived at least 100 days after HSCT, whose current age ranged from 5 to 17 years and their primary caregivers, mostly mothers. Parents completed the Korean version of Child Behavior Check List and Child Health Questionnaire 50-item parent-report version. Children with HSCT had significantly lower scores on the total scale for behavior problems and on most subscales than a normative sample, t = 2.09 to -4.75, P = .043 to <.001. Compared with the Taiwanese sample, scores in physical and psychosocial QoL (except bodily pain, mental health, and behavior) were significantly lower in children with HSCT, t = -2.91 to -9.84, P =.005 to <.001. Time since HSCT seemed to influence the physical (F = 8.61, P = .001) and psychosocial QoL (F = 3.98, P = .025) subscales. Social competence (r = .48, P = .001) and behavioral problems (r = -.37, P = .006) were associated with psychosocial QoL but not with physical QoL. After HSCT, children could benefit from psychological support to promote their adaptation to daily life and improve their QoL.