Thirty-three patients with myelodysplasia had kyphectomies for correction of spinal deformities. Harrington compression instrumentation was used for fixation in 21 patients, with postoperative immobilization in a spinal orthosis for 6 months. Twelve patients had Luque rod instrumentation, with fixation through the first sacral foramina with a modification of the Dunn technique and with no postoperative immobilization. Kyphosis recurred in eight patients with Harrington rod instrumentation and in none of those with Luque rod instrumentation. Nine patients with Harrington compression rods required 15 procedures for instrumentation problems. Only five of the 21 patients with Harrington compression rods had no significant complications, although ultimately 20 of 21 patients had solid fusions without further progression of the kyphosis. All 12 patients with Luque rods had solid fusions with no recurrences of the kyphotic deformity. One patient required operation for instrumentation problems.