Pyomyositis in Children

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Bacterial infections of muscle, also known as pyomyositis or tropical pyomyositis, occur more commonly in tropical regions. This article reviews five cases of pyomyositis diagnosed in children over a 1-year period. Pyomyositis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of septic-appearing children as well as children complaining of joint pain or muscle aches. The diagnosis can be aided with either a computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The MRI is preferable because multiple processes can be evaluated, such as joint effusion suggesting septic arthritis. If the patient does not respond quickly to antibiotics and surgical intervention, either there is a recurrence of the previously debrided abscess, or there is an unrecognized secondary abscess. Multiple abscess sites should be entertained prior to initial debridement.

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